Rapporteur’s Report by Dr Barry Eaglestone

Thanks to all contributors and participants!


The MEI series of conferences is international and addresses issues relating to medical and health education, patient education and engagement, open education, educational technology and technology enhanced learning, Medicine/Health 2.0/3.0/4.0, and artificial intelligence in health education. The particular theme this year was “technology-led patient engagement, empowerment and education”.

It gathered some 90 participants from 11 countriesworldwide from a good mixture of academics, healthcare professionals/experts and experts from industry.


MEI 2018 Day One: Thursday 6thSeptember 2018

Session One – 9:00 – 10:45

The opening session, chaired by Trudie Roberts, comprised two invited keynote talks. 

The first keynote, ”The impact of disruptive digital technologies on education, medicine, health and well-being”, was presented by Dr David Wortley, 360in360 Immersive Experiences. This talk was shared also with EC TEL 2018 by streaming.

Dr Wortley gave a personal reflection on how his life has changed from boyhood aspirations, in the 1960’s, to the current day. The backcloth was the enabling technologies - transport, telecoms and self-directed learning – and how they have evolved over that time span. His conclusions addressed future employment opportunities together with stresses on healthcare. In particular, the speaker focused on the progressive absorption of human expertise into technology and the resulting automation of previously skilled employment. From these reflections on the past, the speaker derived a vision of future education that focuses on vocational skills where humans excel, while other “skilled” jobs disappear. This in turn presents challenges regarding lack of employment opportunities in the latter. This will occur within the context of an aging population, a larger proportion of retirees to support, and with consequential increasing health problems and demands on healthcare. The speaker identified nursing an example of one of the areas least likely to be taken over by AI because of its essentially human aspect.

The second keynote, “The digital future of the healthcare workforce”, was presented by Patrick Mitchell, Regional Director, South of England, Health Education England.

This talk discussed Health Education England’s work towards determining and managing the impact of digital technology in healthcare. Panels have been set up to focus, respectively, on genomics, digital medicine and AI and robotics. The question that these panels are addressing include changed roles and functions of clinical staff over the next two decades and implications for training and education. Running themes include empowering patients to engage in their own care, the gathering of evidence on technology introduction, and determining how time freed up by technology can be used to enhance patient-clinician relationships. In response to questions the speaker confirmed that the focus is the current NHS workforce. Questions also explored the efficacy of specific apps, the gap between practice and what is being taught currently in the medical schools, and vagaries around the term AI.

Session Two - 11:15 – 11:35

This session, chaired by Anne-Marie Reid, comprised an invited talk, “Medical error and Training Against Medical Error”, presented by Prof. Terry Poulton, St George's, University of London, UK.

This talk addressed the overlap between preventable adverse effects of care and adverse events. This overlap comprises preventable adverse events. Avoiding these is challenging because medical decision making is complex, and medical errors are common but often unrecorded. However, talking and learning about these mistakes can make you safer. The talk then went on to explore factors that contribute to error making and how medical students can be educated to learn from this knowledge. In particular it was noted that awareness of the mistakes they make can reduce the likelihood of future mistakes. The speaker concluded by describing research towards reducing such mistakes through training and education using Patient-Based Learning (PBL) with Virtual Patient (VP) scenarios which include errors. This approach is being research in the TAME  (Training Against Medical Errors) project.

Session 3 – 11:35-12:30

This session, chaired by Eleni Dafli, was the first of two in which issues relating to “Training Against Medical Error” were addressed and thus continued the discussion initiated by Terry Poulson’s talk. The session comprised two papers.

Training the trainers in innovative educational technology: what can we learn from the ePBLNet and TAME projects?” was co-authored by E. Poulton, L. Woodham, T. Jivram, andT. Poulton, St George's, University of London, UK, and was presented by E. Poulton.

The background to the talk was two EU-funded projects - ePBLnet and TAME. Within this context, the paper described work towards training trainers from six universities in the development of D-PBL interactive cases for use in medical student training. In particular, techniques were developed which challenged the belief that students cannot teach themselves and accordingly used a metacognitive approach. Assessment of the method used to train the trainers was through interviews and questionnaires with trainee tutors.

Interactive presentation of evaluation data in training against medical errors” was co-authored by L. Woodham, J. Ščavnický, M. Karolyi, and M. Komenda, St George's, University of London, UK & Masaryk University, Czech Republic. The paper was presented by L. Woodham andMartin Komenda.

This paper also addressed the problem of avoiding medical error and once again, the background was the TAME project. The speakers gave examples of virtual patient scenarios which illustrated medical errors to students and then described the evaluation methodology used to assess the effectiveness of this approach.  Also described was a software environment for data visualisation that is being used for displaying and exploring the results of this evaluation. 

Session 4 – 12:30-13:00

This session, chaired by P. Bamidis, comprised a keynote paper, entitled“Can we improve the health of a city with immersive technologies?”. The paper was authored and presented by Prof. Mark Mon-Williams, University of Leeds, UK.

This paper reported on research towards the use of immersive technology to improve health within Bradford, which is currently an ill-health hot spot. This wide-ranging project includes improving effectiveness of surgeons through warming up sessions with virtual patients. This was motivated by previous research, the results of which indicate that the performance of a surgeon will improve as the day progresses. A second applications of immersive technologies addresses improving motor skills of children using robotic devices. Immersive technologies are also being utilised to bring cultural collections to schools, and to increasing empathy. The other theme is towards improving diagnosis, for example, by tracking lives of Bradford citizens and the use of VR to measure health related capabilities, such as cognitive and motor capabilities.

Session 5 – 14:00-14:20

This session, chaired by Alisdair Smithies, comprised an invited talk, “Older user engagement in ICT projects: what older users want and do not want from technology”, co-authored byUnai Diaz-Orueta, Maynooth University, and Luise Hopper, Dublin City University, Ireland. The paper was presented by Unai Diaz-Orueta.

This paper addressed issues related to associating older users in research. The vulnerability of the older user was identified as an important factor. Specifically, older people may be vulnerable with respect to providing consent, making decisions, or being exploited. Also, older users may be vulnerable to physical control, coercion, undue influence, or manipulation. This may stem from lack of capacity to take choices, cognitive limitations and communications problems. Further, this vulnerability may stem from organisational, economic or social factors. The presentation also explored reasons why older persons may or may not wish to use technology, such as videogames and robots.

Workshop 1 – 14:20-15:20

This workshop, chaired by Louise Hopper, addressed “Ethical considerations in the digital age of health and social care: experiences from the CAPTAIN project”. The workshop was designed by L. Hopper, U. Diaz-Orueta, R. Joyce, E. Konstantinidis, and  P. D. Bamidis, Maynooth University, Dublin City University, Ireland; Nively, France; Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. Commentaries were provided by Th. Cooper, Leeds Living Lab andA. M. Reid, Leeds Institute of Medical Education, University of Leeds, UK. 

In this workshop, ethical challenges associated with technology use by older people were explored. The workshop took the form of a lecture on ethical issues relating to older people and technology, interspersed with a series of tasks in which delegates were canvassed for their view. Specifically, delegates were asked to consider a series of commentaries in the form of various scenarios and situations involving older people and technological solutions to their problem situations. Views were canvassed on ethical issues and the relative importance of these, as they relate to these narratives.

Session 6 – 15:20-15:45

In this session, chaired by Panagiotis Antoniou, issues relating to “Co-creation of Centred Approaches“ were addressed. The session comprised three papers.

AD-Autonomy: examining the experiences of ‘autonomy’ and the use of Assistive Technology by people with dementia and their care partners” was co-authored by B. Hicks, andI. Konovalova, Ageing and Dementia Research Centre, Bournemouth University, UK. The paper was presented by Ben Hicks.

This presentation explored why autonomy is important and areas where individuals with dementia struggle. Causes of these problems include problems relating to emotional skills, activities of daily living, health management, meaningful activities, orientation and navigation, and safety and security. The speaker stressed that any strategy relating to autonomy of an individual should be continually monitored and amended as appropriate, while taking into account gender and cultural differences. The paper then overviewed the assistive technologies that can be used in such strategies, and reflected on possible reasons why they are not being used.

AD-Autonomy: participatory design of an innovative training platform to support the autonomy of Alzheimer Disease patients and their careers” was co-authored byA. Βillis, D. Mantziari, andP. D. Bamidis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. The paper was presented by A. Billis.

This paper discussed the definition and nature of autonomy for those with Alzheimer’s disease. It then reviewed activities and tools that can be utilised to maintain autonomy for such sufferers. In particular, the technology includes smartphones, tablets and smart watches. Barriers to the use of these technologies were reviewed. Finally, the paper describes an E-Training platform to support strategies for autonomy maintenance for Alzheimer sufferers.

Co-creation in the Design, Development and Implementation of TEL (CC-TEL) – Reporting back on an innovative workshop Survey on virtual coaching for older adults” was co-authored by R. Dent-Spargo, A. Piotrkowicz, and T. Treasure-Jones, Leeds Institute of Medical Education, UK.

The paper was presented by R. Dent-Spargo.

The workshop being reviewed took the form of presentations in the morning and an afternoon BarCamp to discussion and development of ideas that immerged from the presentations. A link to the results of the workshop was provided and delegates were encouraged to contribute further to this ongoing discussion.

Session 7 - 16:15-17:00

In this session, chaired by Gareth Frith, issues relating to “Augmented and Virtual Reality enhanced education and health practice“ were addressed. The session comprised three papers.

Survey on virtual coaching for older adults” was co-authored by N. Lete, A. Beristain, andA. García-Alonso, VICOMTECH, Spain. The paper was presented by N. Lete.

This paper reviewed issues relating to “virtual coaching” for older adults. These include self-monitoring, self-awareness, context-awareness, interface modality and coaching strategy. A design space for a virtual tutoring system was proposed which was synthesised together with associated coaching interventions.

Exploring Virtual Scenarios Efficacy for Facilitator training in Sensitive Groups' Mental and Physical Exercise Regimens” was co-authored by P. E. Antoniou, V. Zilidou, E. Romanopoulou, I. Dratsiou, S. Siouli, andP. D. Bamidis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. The paper was presented by P. E. Antoniou.

This paper overviewed the LLMCare project, within which an integrated IT-enabled support system for cognitive and physical training is being researched. This environment is motivated by the understood role physical exercise and cognitive training plays in improving the quality of life of vulnerable groups, such as the elderly and those with mental conditions.  The environment aims to educating the facilitators of this sort of exercise and training, using virtual scenarios. The paper describe how the system has been evaluated using two virtual scenarios – one for physical and one for cognitive training. A cohort of facilitators participated in training using these scenarios, and the effectiveness of the training was evaluated by surveying their learning experience and using a case quality assessment tool. The presenter reported that the results of this initial assessments were positive and suggest the study is a good starting point.

Multimodal monitoring of emotional responses of teachers while viewing scenes of school violence” was co-authored by G. Arfaras, A. Βillis, andP. D. Bamidis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. The paper was presented by G. Arfaras.

The project described in this paper compares emotional responses of teachers to bullying in schools. Multimedia content depicting bullying of different types (verbal, physical, teacher intervention) was created and shown to teachers. The teachers’ responses were monitored using affect buttons, bio-signal monitoring and questionnaires. Results were analysed to determine if the recorded bio-responses to viewing the bullying corresponded to the teachers’ self-reporting of their reactions. In this way the study attempts to establish levels of empathy and attitudes of the teachers towards bullying, which in turn could be used to improve future handling of violence in schools by teachers.

Workshop 2  - 17:15-18:30

This second workshop, chaired by Prof. Dimitris Koutsourisof theNational Technical University of AthensGreece, addressed issues ranging “From serious games and education platforms to Virtual Reality in mental health”. The workshop comprised a series of five presentations.

The platform MELI (Music Education Live Instructions): An educational soſtware for children with autism spectrum disorders and their parents” was co-authored by S. BarakariP. Katrakazas,P. IoannidouO. Petropoulouand D. Koutsourisfrom National Technical University of Athens, Greeceand was presented by S. Barakari. 

This presentation concerned autistic children and associated teaching approaches. Specifically, it addressed music therapy systems. Music therapy sessions and models of the musical experience were overviewed, and the design and development of the presenter’s  Meli  system (Music education live instruction) was discussed and demonstrated. Meli allows the child to participate in music making and listening activities. Preliminary assessment show this to be useful and promising. Further work was proposed.


Learning Management System providing first aid for children knowledge to teachers” was co-authored by L-V. Logothetis, M. Taroussi, P. Katrakazas, O. Petropoulou, A. Athanasiou, K. Koloutsou and D. Koutsouris of National Technical University of Athens, Greeceand presented by E. Vellidou due to absence ofL-V. Logothetis.

This second presentation described Moodle Cloud. This provides distance learning for teachers to learn first aid for children in school. Its three and a half hour course covers various first aid interventions, for example, for fainting, poisoning, nose bleeds, with assessment quizzes. Completion is rewarded by badges. The system has been evaluated, with positive feedback. Further developments were outlined, including enhanced interactivity, new courses, and real-life sessions.

PROPHETIC: Serious games enhanced management of Parkinson'spatients” was co-authored by E. Vellidou, M. Sarafidis, M. Taroussi, T. Androutsou, O. Manta, O. Giannoussopoulou, Francisco Ibanez, T. Koutsouri, I. Kouris and D. Koutsouris of National Technical University of Athens, Greeceand presented by M. Tarousi.

The paper explains the effect of Parkinson’s disease and the development of PROPHETIC, a serious games platform designed to help patients suffering from those effects and associated healthcare professionals. The games supported by this system were overviewed and demonstrated and specific beneficial effects of each game were identified.

This presentation under the title:“Enhancing Virtual Reality Phobia treatment with evaluation system and dynamic adjustment capabilities” combined two papers the one addressing the evaluation system and the other the adjustment capabilities, that were co-authored by E. AnastasiouD. AdamisE. Vellidouand D. Koutsourisof the National Technical University of Athens, Greeceand presented by E. Anastasiou

This presentation described a system to address problems associated with phobias-fear. Treatment methods include combinations of medication and therapy of various types. The virtual reality can play a part in the therapy but there is no way to assess the effectiveness and the virtual environments are different for each patient. The goals are live monitoring of patient’s fear level and dynamic adjustment of the environment accordingly. The former is done by capturing biological signals and using machine learning to classify patient’s fear level. The dynamic adjustment is determined by human experts. It is hoped that benefits are a more effective system and will provide biometric evaluation without the need for questionnaires.

The final presentation combined a paper “An affordable, portable and easy to use fully Immersive Virtual Reality (VR) System targeting the treatment of phobias” as well as a demo session with videos showing the maturity of technical development. The paper was co-authored byJ. Kritikos, S. Poulopoulou, C. Zoitaki, E. Vellidou and D. Koutsouris of the National Technical University of Athens, Greece

In the absence of the main authors there was a combined presentation by Eleftheria Vellidou and Prof. D. Koutsouris, in the form of a video in which their VR-based system for treating the effect of phobias is explained and demonstrated. 


MEI 2018 Day 2: Friday 7thSeptember 2018

Session 8 – 9:00-9:45

This session, chaired by Tamsin Treasure-Jones, comprised an invited keynote paper, “Everything changed, nothing changed.The technology paradox in health professional education”. This keynote paper was authored and presented by Prof. Rachel Ellaway, Director of the Office of Health and Medical Education Scholarship, University of Calgary, Canada.

This wide ranging keynote argued that technology has changed everything relating to health professional education, but at the same time it has not changed the fundamentals. Examples were given on how technology has transformed the ways in which students study and teachers teach and assess. For instance, student study now includes use of electronic notes, online resources, cross program communication, sharing and comparison, more independence with multiple choices for accessing learning. Teachers now have an expanded technology-enabled repertoire, including accessible PD and FD material and examples, systems of outcomes and competencies, PowerPoint, data projectors, recordings, and accessible online slides. Further, medical educational systems have changed to better support accreditation and accountability; democratisation of information and flow; highly integrated digital records; digitised libraries; and online access to university systems. But the paper also argues nothing of importance has changed. The relationship between student/patient/preceptor is essentially the same, with or without technology. Human brains are still the endpoint. However, technology does make major differences, such as to activity design, making and sharing, and collaborating. The Internet accelerates speed of action and response.  Geography and temporalities are no longer barriers. We now have exponential connectivity, with a blurring of social conventions, and tracking of actions. Technology means healthcare educators, professionals and students can do different things in different ways and thus presents major challenges.

High-level Expert Panel – 9:45-10:30

This panel session, chaired by James Pickering, addressed issues relating to “Technological Innovations in everyday health care practice: the role of educationment”. The panel members were to be Richard Corbridge. Chief Digital & Information Officer, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, St. James’s University Hospital, UK, and Nick Peres, Lead for Learning & Emerging Technologies R&D, Founder Patient VR & Virtual Humanities (Plymouth University). However, Nick Peres was unable to attend.

The session started with a presentation by Richard Corbridge. He first underline the scale of the problem of healthcare, with illustrative statistics relating to Leeds. He then considered the extent to which the deployment of IT within the NHS is appropriate and beneficial, and presented some recent results relating to this. In particular his presentation discussed transformation of care by technology and the problems and challenges it introduces. 

Nick Peres contribution was in the form of a video in which he discusses the development of VR in the healthcare space, to improve empathy, and patients’ engagement with rehabilitation.

Issues raised in the following discussion included the organisational structure within Leeds to make IT solutions work, and the nature of support for patients to access and maintain their own health records (for example through the HELM project).

Session 9 – 10:30-11:15

This session, chaired by Ella Poulton, was the second of two in which issues relating to “Training Against Medical Error” were addressed. The session comprised of seven papers as two of them were transferred from day 1.. They all presented assessment of PBL with VPs and cases with embedded medical errors, for training medical students to avoid errors. However, the assessments were within different geographical and medical contexts and employed different assessment approaches.

The first paper focused on the TAME project which is co-ordinated by the medical School in Karaganda, Kazakhstan and funded by the Erasmus+ programme;,it was titled “Training against medical error with Virtual patients: do learners gain enough to manage patients in the future?”, co-authored by V. Riklefs, G. Abakassova, S. Kaliyeva, A. Muratovaand was presented by G Abakassova.The VP scenarios were referring to General Practice for clinical PBL with senior year students and their training for preventing medical errors. The authors looked into how group dynamics influence student perceived ability, experience, knowledge and communication skills to help them manage the patients in the future. Responses were collected from 34 students using non-anonymous online questionnaires after each case, while routine progress test score prior to tutorials was used as indicator of initial academic abilities. Data analysis showed that virtual patient cases closely mimic the behavior of future doctors in real life situations. Thus, one can develop recommendations on how to make learning experiences more beneficial to students.

Impact of training against medical errors using virtual patients in Vietnam: a quasi-experimental study” was co-authored by L. T. Huong, L. V. Dung and the TAME Project, Hanoi Medical University, Vietnam. The paper was presented by L. T. Huong.

The paper presented a study of the effectiveness of training of Vietnamese medical students using PBL with VPs, with the aim of helping them avoid medical errors. The VPs were used to enable students to experience medical error cases via simulations. Assessment was through multi-choice questions to assess what had been learned. The students were also asked about motivation and experience. 

Results of implementation of DPBL with Virtual Patients in the frames of TAME: Training Against Medical Errors Project realization in Surgery” was co-authored by M. O. Avramenko, O. O. Furyk, and V. M. Kompaniiets Zaporozhye,  State Medical University, Ukraine. The paper was presented by M.O. Avramenko.

This paper also described research towards training medical students to avoid medical errors, using D-PBL with VPs including cases with embedded surgical errors. The study was also within the context of the TAME project. Students were assessed before and after the training, and three months later. The students’ performances in professional competence exams were also assessed. 

Quality Analysis of mastering of discipline “Paediatrics” in the frames of the grant project TAME: Training Against Medical Error” was co-authored by A.S. Pavlenko, A. A. Kuznietsov, Yu. F. Polkovnikov, and A. S. Pavlenko, Zaporozhye State Medical University, Ukraine. The paper was presented by A.S. Pavlenko.

As in the previous papers in this session, an evaluation of PBL using VPs with medical errors included is the cases was presented. This paper compared the relative effectiveness of branching cases compared to linear cases and traditional learning. There was a pre-assessment of student’s knowledge and a test of sustainability of knowledge 6 months later. Performance in professional competence exams was also assessed. 

The effectiveness of problem based learning in compare traditional approach in medical universities by the results of state exams” was co-authored by О. К. Коloskova, Т. М. Bilous, G. A. Bilyk, and S. I. Sazhyn, Bukovinian State Medical University, Ukraine. The paper was presented by Serhii Sazhyn

As in the previous papers in this session, the paper presented and evaluation of the effectiveness of PBL with VPs with medical errors embedded in the cases. The study was of how these learning methods change knowledge level of students. The evaluation was through an analysis of state exams (Step 2 Medicine) results and a learner experience survey. 

Training against medical errors using virtual patients as an alternatively effective approach for competency based education was co-authored byV. V. Thang, N. V. Hung, L. T. B. Yen, H. D. Tuyen, and N. Stathakarou and was presented byVo Van Thang.

This final paper of the session once again presented an evaluation of the effectiveness of using VP cases with embedded medical errors to train medical students. This time the study was in Vietnam. The evaluation was of knowledge gained by the students. The procedure included analysis of the curriculum, the development of VP cases, and training trainers and interventions. Assessment used a focus group and questionnaire survey. Sustainability of the learning was tested after 2 months. The evaluation was of the learning experience, motivation and knowledge gained.

Workshop 3 -  11:40-13:00

This workshop, chaired byMelanie Mayr, addressed issues relating to “Re-thinking literature search in the information rich health care system: Exploring and designing appropriate practices for healthcare professionals”. The workshop was designed by M. Mayr , L. Kamolz , S. Dennerlein, R. Price, and J. Bibby, Know-Center, Medical University of Graz, University of Graz, Austria.

This workshop was a practical session in which delegates conducted literature searches. Topics were proposed by delegate groups and selected by election. The elected topics included trusted sources, the filter bubble effect (capitalism), strategy, and cross organisational analytics. Each group of delegates then performed a literature search on one of those topics. There followed a BarCamp session to explore the experience of the groups and discuss and develop related topics.

Session 10 – 14:00-14:30

This session, chaired by Panagiotis D. Bamidis, comprised an invited talk, “What’s in it for me? Motivators and power games on the web”, presented by David Topps, University of Calgary, Canada.

This invited paper explored issues relating to health-related information on the web and how engagement with information on the web can be problematic.  For example, using YouTube clips for medical education (clinical skills training) raises potential for misinformation, but how do you tell the difference?  On the other hand education using handouts is not useful or effective, and rules of communicating with patients are archaic and naïve. He cited MSHealthVault as an example of an initiative that has not really taken off, and discussed problems of sharing content on the web and the associated problems with copy write. The discussion then addressed the NHS apps library and empowerment of patients as a discovery collaborate. Problems cited include lack of time or guided filtering of accessible information. Also, the speaker speculated that many doctors are not aware they are not the only information source and not the main source. The talk concluded by citing the opennotes international movement as “worth a look”. This is an initiative that urges doctors, nurses, etc. to invite patients to read notes they write after a visit, and is an example of an approach towards more accurate records and better patient engagement. 

Session 11 – 14:30-15:40

This session, chaired by Stathis Konstantinidis, addressed issues relating to “Contemporary issues of e-learning”. The session comprised six papers.

Digital Mentors in Medical Education” was co-authored by V. Dimitrova, andA. Piotrkowicz, University of Leeds, UK. The paper was presented by A.Piotrkowicz.

This paper discussed two projects at Leeds University towards self-regulated learning – myPAL and Active Video Watching. The former is developing interactive means of engaging with videos for transferable skills learning. The myPAL project aims to support learning and the development of self-learning skills through provision of a personalised adaptive digital learning companion. The paper discussed what to model in such a “companion” and the techniques that can be deployed, from data-driven, temporal analytic, and text analytics perspectives.  Planned further work includes higher engagement with nudges, and to expand the application to medical consultation.

Generation of Reusable Learning Objects from Digital Medical Collections in the Radiology Area: the Clavy Approach” was co-authored by F. Buendía, J. Gayoso, andJ. L. Sierra, Universitat Politecnica Valencia & Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain. The paper was presented by F. Buendia.

The paper addresses how to create knowledge medical information in the form of Learning Objects (LOs). The project is using an information management tool, called Clavy, to extract information from collections, to structure and organise it and to export in LO format. The context is radiology educational. LOs has been created from MedPix, a free open-access online database, by importing data, curation of resources, and exporting LOs.  There has been positive feedback for the approach. Further work is planned to create LOs for new courses and to access new collections.

Uncovering a Tripartite Relationship Between Patient, e-Health And Healthcare Professionals” was co-authored by M. Awwal Ladan, andH. Wharrad, R. Windle, University of Nottingham, UK. The paper was presented by M. Awwal Ladan.

This paper presented a study of patient preferences as factors in clinical practice. The study was of how patient preferences influence healthcare professionals in Sub-Saharan Africa. The attitudes of healthcare professionals were analysed through a survey and interviews.  A range of viewpoints emerged. The main factors were: resistance; clinical autonomy; task orientation; patient/family preferences; access to eHealth; age/gender; and clinical practice in eHealth. 

Upscaling Learning Technology – the evolution of e-Learning in a University Hospital Emergency Department” was co-authored by A. Lee, F. Coffey, andR. Windle, University of Nottingham, UK. The paper was presented by A. Lee.

The paper reviewed the DREEAM project in which problems associated with e-learning resources within a growing organisation are being researched.  These problems were discussed together with the project’s solution for addressing these, i.e., a website with multiple e-learning features. A particular feature of the system is that the developers of the e-learning resources allow the educators of the resources to become further developers of them.

Making Virtual Scenarios more accessible with WAVES” was authored and presented by Sh. Kavia, St. George's, University of London, UK. The paper was presented by Terry Poulton, in the author’s absence.

This paper covered research within the WAVE project towards making Scenario-Based Learning thorough Virtual Scenarios more accessible.  The motivation for this work is the fact that learners in competence based professions need to practice authentically and to take decisions and experiment in a safe environment. The paper described the tool-kit that has been developed to assist in creation and delivery of virtual scenarios. This includes a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) entitled “Using Virtual Scenarios to Create Effective Learning” to train the developers and exploiters of virtual scenarios. 

Simulation for Communication Skills Training in Medical Students: A Systematic Scoping Review” was co-authored by A. Bakogiannis, J. Darling, V. Dimitrova, andT. Roberts, University of Leeds, UK. The paper was presented by A. Bakogiannis.

This paper addressed creation of virtual patients (VPs) with whom undergraduate medical students can interact to improve communication skills. The paper is preliminary to a proposed review of this area. The presenter described the methodology they intend to use. This will include a scoping review, and a comprehensive literature search. 


Workshop 4 – 16:00-17:00

This workshop, chaired by Iraklis Paraskakis, addressees issues relating to “An ambient and organic leaning approach to support nursing education in a global environment”. The workshop proposal was co-authored byI. Paraskakis, S. Hatzipanagos, P. Sarafis, andK. Spilsbury, City College/University of Sheffield, Greece/UK, University of West London, UK, Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus and University of Leeds, UK

The workshop was to canvass reactions to the design of a platform to support education and continuing education for healthcare professionals in a global environment. The workshop began with a presentation on the design and implementation of the platform. Delegates groups then reflected on this system and their own professional experiences. Feedback was given by delegates on their reaction to the system, with suggestions relating to the efficacy of the system for them and suggestions for improvements. 

Workshop 5 - -17:00-18:00

This workshop, run jointly by Kath Guyersand Michelle Ellwood, addressed issues relating toEnhanced academic student support and exam feedback strategies“. The workshop was co-designed by Kath GuyersM. Ellwood, H. Millott, K. Guyers, andV. Pantic, Leeds Institute of Medical Education, UK

In this workshop a revised supervision strategy and exam feedback strategy, for use in the Leeds Institute of Medical Education, were presented. The revisions included formalising academic support, more explicit formative support activities, signposting additional resources, deadlines for submission and submitting via turnitin. The revised strategy has been introduced for two courses – BSc Diagnostic Radiography and PGD Physician Associated Studies. Evaluation was via student and staff feedback. A semi-automated means of providing electronic feedback for exams was also introduced. turnitin output was enhanced with feedback from the assessor for written assignments. Also, EXCEL spreadsheets were used to combines text and numbers to show where the marks came from and to justify the mark. Again the approach was assessed using student and staff feedback. The presentation was followed by a discussion of the strategies and tools.

Closing session – 18:00-18:15

Closing remarks were provided by Panagiotis D. Bamidis.